Data and filtering process
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Diversity of the Madden-Julian Oscillation
Sci Adv, Jul 31, 2019; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax0220

We used daily averaged OLR data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction /National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration–interpolated OLR dataset (37) for the period of 1979–2013 (35 years) to depict the major deep convection associated with the MJO. For the horizontal and vertical winds, temperature, and specific humidity, the daily averaged European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis data (38) from 1000 to 100 hPa with 50-hPa interval were used. To study the background SST conditions, the SST dataset from the NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) version 5 (39) has been adopted. For OLR and atmospheric data, intraseasonal (20- to 70-day) band-pass–filtered anomalies during boreal winter (from November to April) were analyzed. The anomalous fields were obtained by first removing the time mean and climatological annual cycle based on the 1980–2010 reference period and then applying a 20- to 70-day band-pass filter. The OLR and atmospheric data were interpolated to 2.5° × 2.5° grids to match each other. Here, we defined observations to be NOAA OLR, NOAA ERSST, and ERA-Interim combined.

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