To test for gene flow between populations, we estimated their respective allele frequency correlations using f-statistics. Both f4- and f3-statistics were computed using the qpDstat program (v701) of the ADMIXTOOLS package (v4.1) (24) with default parameters.

To test the symmetry between populations X and Y, the f4-statistic of the form f4 (X, Y; test, outgroup) was used. We report the f-statistics in which at least 20,000 SNP positions were overlapping between the four tested populations.

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