Animal experiments were performed according to the guidelines of the French Ethics Committee, i.e., agreement no. A78-322-6. Axenic male F344 M rats (6 weeks old) provided by the Germ Free Animals facility ANAXEM (Animalerie Axénique de Micalis) platform [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR 1319 Micalis, France] and maintained on a standard diet during 12 days were inoculated with R. gnavus E1 [0.5 ml of late log-phase culture at 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml] by intragastric route to generate R. gnavus E1 monoxenic rats (n = 10). After 5 days, individual fecal samples were collected and bacterial counts were estimated by plating serial dilutions of suspensions. We plated these samples on Brain Heart Infusion agar supplemented with yeast extract (5 g/liter) and hemin (5 mg/liter) (BHI-YH), and on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, to check for the colonization by R. gnavus E1 and possible contamination by other bacteria. The animals were sacrificed 12 days after inoculation, and feces and cecal contents were collected. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen before being stored at −80°C until RNA or bacteriocin purification.

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