Tumorigenicity was determined by injecting MDA-MB-231 or T47D cells with Matrigel into fourth mammary fat pads of 1-month-old female nude mice. The number of tumors in each group was five. The animals were euthanized when the tumors were 1.0 to 1.5 cm in diameter. A portion of each tumor was fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. The tumor sizes were measured with a caliper and calculated as tumor volume = length × width2/2.

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