Sweat samples were analyzed using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC) on a Dionex ICS-5000 system (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Samples were injected (10 μl), and glucose was separated from all other sweat components on a Dionex CarboPAC PA-20 HPAEC column (length, 150 mm; inner diameter, 3 mm; particle size, 6.5 μm) with an in-line column guard (length, 30 mm; inner diameter, 3 mm; particle size, 6.5 μm) using an isocratic method (15 min, 0.010 M NaOH). The flow rate was set at 400 μl/min. The column was cleaned with 0.200 M NaOH (5 min) and reequilibrated in 0.01 M NaOH (15 min) after each run. The column compartment was maintained at 30°C, and the detector compartment was maintained at 25°C. Solvents were prepared using Milli-Q grade ultrapure water (resistivity >18.2 megaohm·cm at 25°C) and NaOH [50% (w/w) NaOH, Certified Grade, Fisher Scientific). A calibration curve was generated from the peak area of glucose standards with known concentrations (5 to 40 μM). All data were processed using Chromeleon Chromatography Data System software (version 7.1).

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