We conducted focal follows (34) from dawn to dusk on subadult and adult females. We aimed for full-day focal follows, but if a focal individual was out of sight for more than 10 min, then another baboon was selected. We recorded 597 hours of observation data, with an average of 16.40 ± 10.02 hours (mean ± SD; range, 1.50 to 39.00 hours) per focal female. We prioritized following females in their peak estrus [denoted by maximal tumescence of the anogenital area and bright pink color (35)] to maximize the number of mating events observed. We collected data on the sexual behavior of focal females and their partners (table S1), recording when dyads participated in consortships in which a male maintained close proximity to a female and attempted to prevent other males from mating with her (24). In addition, we collected data on the frequency and success of mating attempts led by either males or females. Male-led mating attempts were identified as a male trying to mount a female with the performance of pelvic thrusts (36). Attempts led by females were documented when a female presented her perineum to a male while lifting her tail (37). Attempts by either sex were considered successful if they resulted in copulation. Because of the loss of the corpus penis or phimosis, some males were unable to engage in intromission and/or ejaculation, precluding our ability to use these behaviors to define successful mating attempts. An unsuccessful attempt was defined as a female rejecting a male’s attempt to mount (e.g., by sitting or fleeing) or a male refraining from mounting a female after she presented to him. Behavioral data were recorded on a hand-held device (Samsung Galaxy Hand Note) in the field using Pendragon 5.1.2 software (Pendragon Software Corporation, USA) and transferred daily onto computers for error checking and data storage.

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