Ultrathin sections of the repaired enamel for TEM characterization of the structure and crystallography were prepared with a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB)–scanning electron microscope instrument (Quanta 3D FEG, FEI, USA), which was fitted with a liquid gallium ion source. A layer of platinum (thickness, ~1 μm) was deposited over a region of interest to protect the surface from ion beam damage during the milling processes. The thin sections were lifted out and transferred onto a copper grid for further TEM and SAED observations.

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