Fieldwork was conducted at LMNP, Northern Tanzania (3°28′ S 35°46′E), during two field seasons (April to December) in 2015 and 2016. LMNP is a small protected area (approximately 580 km2) with almost 220 km2 of lake coverage. In 2016, we conducted a survey estimating the population size of the LMNP baboons in the park excluding the recently added area of the Marang forest (250 km2). The population was estimated to consist of approximately 5200 olive baboons, and individuals with ulcerated genitals were observed in most groups within LMNP.

We habituated our study group (n ≈ 170 baboons) over a 4-month period before data collection. To enhance location of the group, we radio-collared three adult females (Advanced Telemetry Systems Inc., Isanti, MN, USA). Proceedings on immobilization and anesthesia are described in (13). Our analyses focused on 26 adult and 11 subadult females (after excluding data of females observed <1.5 hours) and 28 adult and 7 subadult males. Age categories were defined as in (33). Adult males were identified by their large body size and fully developed secondary sexual traits; subadult males were larger than females but lacked secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., large shoulder mane and elongated canines). Adult females were identified as individuals that have reached full body size, whereas subadult females were smaller and lacked elongated nipples (but were already cycling).

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