PTMAO and PVA were made into highly cross-linked cylindrical hydrogel bowls (6 mm in diameter and 8 mm in depth) with 50 wt % of solid fraction using a home-made mold. Then, 300 μl of pooled complement human serum (Innovative Research, Novi, MI) was added into replicates of each polymer bowl (n = 3) and incubated at 37°C for 90 min, and followed by quenching with 30 μl of 10 mM EDTA solution. The complement activation degree was measured by quantifying a complement degradation fragment C5b-9 in serum using a standard ELISA kit (BD Bioscience, San Diego, CA) following the manufacturer’s protocol. The level of preexisting C5b-9 in the serum was measured and subtracted as the background.

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