Neuropharmacological manipulations
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Indirect pathway from caudate tail mediates rejection of bad objects in periphery
Sci Adv, Aug 7, 2019; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw9297

To temporarily block GABAergic inputs to cvGPe neurons, we locally injected bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist) in cvGPe. The injection was done in the right cvGPe of each subject. We first recorded the neuronal activity encoding stable value to confirm that the site was localized within cvGPe (25) and then injected bicuculline. For this purpose, we used a custom-made injectrode consisting of a microelectrode (FHC) and a silica tube (Polymicro Technologies). Bicuculline methiodide (14343; Sigma-Aldrich) was dissolved in physiological saline. We injected 1 μl of bicuculline (1 μg/μl) in each site at a speed of 0.2 μl/min using a manual pump. The subjects performed behavioral tasks starting 5 min after the injection. We studied the behavioral effect of bicuculline using the sequential saccade choice task (Fig. 2A) and the simultaneous saccade choice task (Fig. 4A). Main analyses were based on the comparison of saccades to (and from) the presented object between the pre-injection sessions and the post-injection sessions (within 1 hour after the injection). We sometimes studied the neuronal effect of bicuculline in cdlSNr (that is, the target of cvGPe; Fig. 3, A and D). For control sessions, we injected 1 μl of physiological saline in each site in cvGPe at a speed of 0.2 μl/min. In total, nine sessions for bicuculline injections (ZB: five and SP: four) and eight sessions for saline injections (ZB: five and SP: three) were conducted.

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