We used aberration-corrected STEM to image the cross sections directly. The cross-sectional samples were fabricated by focused ion beam cutting along the [100] axes of FGT. All the electrical measurements were performed in a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS) system with magnetic fields of up to 9 T and temperatures down to 1.8 K. Multiple lock-in amplifiers (Stanford SR830 and SR850) and Keithley source meters (Keithley 2400, 2182, and 6221) were connected to the PPMS, enabling comprehensive transport measurements for the Hall bar devices. A constant of 200 μA dc was applied for the Hall measurement. In the switching measurement, large current pulses (write current, 50 ms) were first applied. After a time interval of 100 ms, we subsequently applied another small current (read current, 0.1 mA for 50 ms), during which the Hall voltage signal was picked up. The device temperature during the application of write pulse was extracted by monitoring the longitudinal resistance. The temperature increased during the application of read pulse was negligible.

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