Briefly, BSA, Cyt C, and trypsin were dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer (pH 7.4), respectively. The protein solutions were mixed with FITC at a FITC/protein molar ratio of 3:1. The reaction solutions were stirred for 24 hours at room temperature in the dark. The yielding products were intensively dialyzed against PBS and distilled water, respectively. The purified products were lyophilized to obtain FITC-labeled proteins BSA-FITC, Cyt C–FITC, and trypsin-FITC, respectively. RBITC-labeled lysozyme was synthesized with a similar method. The molar ratio of RBITC to lysozyme was 2:1. The fluorescent dye–labeled proteins were stored at −20°C before further experiments.

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