The indentation depth was measured as a function of the applied load using a noncontact, capacitive displacement sensor (LD701-5/10, Omega). The voltage of the sensor is proportional to the distance to a metal target. We thus attached a metal target to a plastic, hemispherical indenter (radius, 5 mm) and applied various loads onto the indenter. The displacement sensor was calibrated using a manual z-stage with a micromanipulator (Newport).

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