All irradiation experiments were carried out a minimum of three times independently unless otherwise mentioned. The average and SD were calculated using the average and stdev functions in Microsoft Excel for Office 365 MSO. The results are expressed as average ± 1 SD. Statistical significance was calculated using Student’s t test using a two-tailed distribution with the function t.test on Microsoft Excel for Office 365 MSO. In all cases, P values of <0.05 are considered statistically significant.

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