Before irradiation, both canine patients, called A and B here, were anaesthetized to assist immobilization during treatment. Patient A’s skin received a radiation dose of 2 Gy within a field size of 4 cm × 4 cm, and patient B’s skin received a radiation dose of 3 Gy within a field size of 6 cm × 14 cm. To achieve maximum dose deposition and to enable a dose buildup to the skin (10), a 1.5-cm bolus was wrapped around the leg of patient B. The gel nanosensor (≈3.5 cm diameter) and a Gafchromic EBT3 film (≈3.5 cm diameter) were wrapped in a plastic bag to prevent direct contact with the skin of the patient. One-half of the gel nanosensor and the Gafchromic EBT3 film were placed on the region, which was exposed to radiation, while the other half of each was placed outside the field of irradiation. For patient A, the gel nanosensor and the Gafchromic EBT3 film were placed on the skin, while for patient B, they were placed on top of the bolus to demonstrate broader applicability. In addition, in the case of patient B, a separate gel nanosensor and Gafchromic EBT3 film were placed entirely within the radiation field underneath the bolus to validate the delivery of the 3-Gy dose to the skin surface. Following radiation treatment, the gel nanosensor and Gafchromic EBT3 films were removed and analyzed as described in the following sections.

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