Iopamidol (molecular weight, 777.1) was obtained from Bracco Imaging (Italy). Seronorm (5 ml), a normalized human blood serum, was purchased from Sero (USA). A set of 40 mM iopamidol phantoms was prepared by carefully dissolving Seronorm in 10 ml of deionized water with 40 mM iopamidol to avoid the formation of foam. Titrations were performed to produce pH values of 5.3, 5.5, 5.7, 5.9, 6.1, 6.3, 6.5, 6.7, 6.9, 7.1, and 7.3, respectively, in aliquots of 0.3 ml. These solutions were placed in 5-mm nuclear magnetic resonance tubes and assembled along with 0.3-ml serum-only control tube to obtain the iopamidol-serum phantom for CEST MRI.

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