Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis (45) with Phoenix WinNonlin v. 8 (Certara, Princeton, NJ). The following parameters were calculated: Cmax, the observed maximum plasma concentration; Tmax, the time when Cmax was achieved; Ke, the terminal rate constant of LNG, estimated by log-linear regression of the terminal phase of the concentration-time profile after patch administration; AUC0–t, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of last quantifiable concentration (Clast) using the linear trapezoidal rule; and AUC0–∞, the area under the curve from time zero to infinity, calculated as AUC0–t + Clast/Ke. The percentage of LNG absorbed in vivo as a function of time was calculated by numerical deconvolution of the patch LNG plasma concentration versus time profiles within Phoenix WinNonlin. Reference intravenous pharmacokinetic data for the calculation of absolute bioavailability (F) and percentage of LNG absorbed as a function of time were obtained from the literature (46).

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