Sites in the Andes Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research Group network ( have been measured every year for estimations of NPP and GPP following the standard protocol from the GEM Network ( Detailed methods are provided elsewhere (32), but briefly within each site, all plant stems ≥10 cm at breast height have been tagged, sized, and identified to species level. Estimation of NPP is based on canopy litterfall, leaf loss to herbivory, aboveground woody productivity of large trees (≥10 cm), and annual census of wood production of small trees (2 to 10 cm in diameter at breast height), branch turnover of live trees, fine root production, and estimation of coarse root productivity (22, 29, 32). Estimation of GPP was calculated from the amount of carbon used for NPP and respiration within 1-ha plots. We evaluated the effect of climatic variables, CMT, and functional diversity indices on GPP and NPP rates across elevation. For this, we used the average values per plot of CMT, FRic, and FDiv. We then used a model selection approach to compare all models of predictors using the second-order Akaike’s information criterion (AICc) and calculated the ΔAICc values to select the best fitting of the models. ΔAICc was calculated by subtracting the AICc value for the model with the lowest AICc from the AICc value for each model. All models with ΔAICc <2 were considered competitive in explaining the variable response (53). To evaluate the relative importance of single-trait functional diversity indices on forest productivity, we correlated each index (e.g., FRic of LMA, FRic of NSC) with NPP and GPP (see table S3).

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