The ITO-coated glass substrates (10 ohms per square) were cleaned consecutively with Triton X-100 solution, isopropanol, and deionized water under sonication for 15 min each and were then treated with O2 plasma for 15 min. Subsequently, the substrates were spin-coated with ZnO nanoparticles solution (10 mg ml−1) and baked at 120°C for 15 min in air. Then, the substrates transferred into a N2-filled glovebox for the device fabrication. The ultrathin layer of PEIE films was prepared following the reported method (34). For the DJ structure perovskite films, the precursor was spin-coated onto the PEIE-treated ZnO films at 3000 rpm for 60 s, followed by baking at 100°C for 10 min. The TFB layers were deposited from a chlorobenzene solution (6 mg ml−1) at 2000 rpm. Last, MoO3 (8 nm) and Al (120 nm) electrodes were deposited by thermal evaporation under a based vacuum of ~2 × 10−7 torr. The effective area of devices is 5 mm2 as defined by the overlapping area of the ITO films and top electrodes.

The current density–luminance-radiance (J-V-R) characteristics were acquired by a Keithley 2400 source meter and a fiber integrating sphere (FOIS-1) couple with a QE Pro650 spectrometer (Ocean Optics). The LED devices were tested on top of the integrating sphere, and only forward light emission could be collected, which is consistent with the standard OLED characterization method. All of the device test processes were performed in the N2-filled glovebox.

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