XRD [Bruker D8 Advance with Cu-Kα radiation (λ = 1.541874 Å], scanning electron microscopy (JEOL 7600F), a Spectrum GX FTIR spectrometer (PerkinElmer Inc.), transmission electron microscopy (JEOL 2010), and an atomic force microscope (Asylum Research) were used to characterize the structure, morphology, and composition of Mxene, cellulose, and their composites. The static force and strain generated by the actuators upon NIR light irradiation were measured on a universal a mechanical analyzer (DMA Q800). The wavelength range of the NIR lamp used in this study was from 650 to 1050 nm. For experiments on information encryption and display demonstration, local heating was performed by exposing selective MXCC shapes to NIR light; the other MXCC area was covered by a mask.

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