Metal contact pads were formed on 125-μm-thick biaxial oriented PEN (Teijin Teonex PEN films) by electron-beam evaporation of 2-nm Ti and thermal evaporation of 20-nm Au in high vacuum (10−7 torr; Lesker LAB18 evaporation system) followed by a lift-off process. Then, CVD-grown graphene on copper (4 cm × 6 cm; Graphenea S.A.) was transferred from the deionized water surface using a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) support layer and dried overnight to remove trapped water. PMMA residues were removed by hot acetone and mild solvent stripper. Samples were rinsed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water and then dried in a vacuum desiccator. We investigated the quality and the uniformity of graphene on flexible polymer substrates by large-area Raman mapping (fig. S10), which indicates that the intrinsic quality is reasonable (i.e., mobility, ~1000 cm2/Vs). Lithographic masks for graphene channels were fabricated by laser writing. Oxygen plasma etching was used to pattern and isolate the graphene channels. The sensitizing thin film of PbS colloidal QD layers was formed by spin coating on top of the graphene layer, followed by a 1,2-ethanedithiol ligand exchange. The synthesis of PbS colloidal QDs was performed using a Schlenk line under inert conditions (53). GQD channels in the demonstrated prototypes were laminated with a conformable PET cap to prevent any mechanical damage that may arise from skin interaction.

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