For the detection of the functional forms of N-cadherins (i.e., the N-cadherins closely linked to the actin network, which are PFA insoluble), the MBs were fixed with a 4% (w/v) PFA (Alpha Aesar, Heysham, UK) for 30 min and permeabilized with 0.2 to 0.5% (v/v) Triton X-100 (Sigma-Aldrich) for 5 min. Alternatively, the aggregates were incubated for 5 min with 100% cold methanol followed by 1 min with cold acetone, for the detection of total N-cadherins (i.e., the PFA-soluble and PFA-insoluble forms).

Then, the samples were blocked with 5% (v/v) FBS in PBS for 30 min and incubated with a rabbit polyclonal anti–N-cadherin primary antibody (ab18203, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) diluted at 1:100 in 1% (v/v) FBS for 4 hours. After washing with PBS, the samples were incubated with an Alexa Fluor 594–conjugated goat polyclonal anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (A-11012, Life Technologies, Saint Aubin, France) diluted at 1:100 in 1% (v/v) FBS for 90 min. Last, the cells were counterstained with 0.2 μM DAPI for 5 min (Sigma-Aldrich) and then washed with PBS.

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