To induce adipogenic differentiation, UC-HMSCs were seeded at 1 × 104 cells/cm2 in culture medium. The day after, the culture medium was switched to StemPro Adipogenesis Differentiation medium (Life Technologies) supplemented with 10 μM rosiglitazone (Sigma-Aldrich) for 2 weeks. To visualize the differentiated adipocytes, the cells were stained with Oil Red O (Sigma-Aldrich). As a control, UC-HMSCs were maintained in culture medium for 2 weeks and stained with Oil Red O, as above.

To induce osteogenic differentiation, UC-HMSCs were seeded at 5 × 103 cells/cm2 in culture medium. The day after, the culture medium was switched to StemPro Osteogenesis Differentiation medium (Life Technologies) supplemented with 2-nm bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) (Sigma-Aldrich) for 2 weeks. To visualize the differentiated osteoblasts, the cells were stained with Alizarin Red S (Sigma-Aldrich). As a control, UC-HMSCs were maintained in culture medium for 2 weeks and stained with Alizarin Red S, as above.

To induce chondrogenic differentiation, UC-HMSCs were seeded at 1 × 106 cells/ml in a 15-ml conical tube to promote micromass culture. The medium consisted of StemPro Chondrogenic Differentiation medium (Life Technologies). After 3 weeks in culture, the pellets were fixed and cryosectioned and then stained for Alcian Blue 8GX (Sigma-Aldrich). As a control, UC-HMSCs were maintained in 2D using culture medium for 3 weeks and stained with Alcian Blue, as above.

The color images were acquired using a binocular (SMZ18, Nikon) equipped with a camera (D7500, Nikon).

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