The birefringence of polymer films was observed using CPOM (Eclipse Ci-POL, Nikon). The mesoscale morphology and film thickness were characterized using tapping mode AFM (Asylum Research Cypher). UV-vis (Cary 60 UV-Vis, Agilent) spectroscopy was used to calculate the absorption coefficient of films and investigate polymer alignment using polarized UV-vis. GIXD measurements were performed at beamline 8-ID-E at the Argonne National Laboratory, with an incident beam energy of 7.35 keV on a 2D detector (PILATUS 1M) at a 208-mm sample-to-detector distance. Samples were scanned for 10 s in a helium chamber. We performed surface (film-air interface) and bulk GIXD to probe the morphology through the depth of the films. The x-ray incident angle was set to be above (0.14°) and below (0.04°) the critical angle (≈0.1°) of the organic layer to probe the molecular packing throughout the entire film and near the top surface layer (penetration depth, approximately 5 nm), respectively. The samples were scanned with the incident beam parallel and perpendicular to the printing direction by rotating the substrate. The molecular conformation was analyzed using a Raman confocal imaging microscope (LabRAM HR 3D-capable Raman spectroscopy imaging system, Horiba) with ×100 objective lens equipped with a Horiba Synapse back-illuminated deep-depletion charge-coupled device camera. A 532-nm laser (maximum power, 50 mW; Laser Quantum) was used as the excitation source. Integration times of 10 s were used for each measurement. An optical density (OD) filter = 1 was used [OD = log(power transmission factor)] after confirming that there was no beam damage to the sample. All electrical measurements were performed in a nitrogen environment using a Keysight B1500A semiconductor parameter analyzer. CD spectra were recorded using a JASCO J-810 spectrophotometer.

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