Total RNA was isolated using TRizol reagent (15596-026, Invitrogen). RNA (1 μg) was reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA using M-MLV (Moloney murine leukemia virus) reverse transcriptase (Promega). Real-time qPCR was performed using 2× SYBR Green Master Mix (Bio-Rad) in a CFX Connect Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad). Each sample was run in triplicate, and gene expression levels were normalized to β-actin. The primer sequences are listed in table S1.

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