We created rocket charts in Excel by producing two lines to identify the outline of each rocket (for example, with the thickness of the rocket scaled to the number of applications per applicant). The data we gathered for the group of interest (AA/B) and the comparator group (WH) to generate these charts were numbers of applicants, applications, applications discussed, and applications funded. We used these to calculate the percentage of applications that were discussed and funded. To visually compare the AA/B data with the much larger numbers in the WH dataset, we used rates per applicant (e.g., dividing the number of applications from AA/B scientists by the number of AA/B applicants). We calculated the percentage difference at each step based on the rate of change for applications from AA/B scientists over the rate of change for applications from WH scientists (e.g., applications from AA/B scientists are discussed at a rate of 44.0%, compared with 57.4% for WH scientists: 44.0/57.4% = 76.6%). We obtained the combined percentage difference by dividing the applications funded per submission for AA/B scientists by the same ratio for WH scientists (e.g., 0.27/0.54 = 50.4%). To analyze the effect of institution type on the funding gap, we extracted all R01 applications (Types 1 and 2) in FY 2011–2015 from the IMPAC II database, grouped applications by institution, and then ranked institutions from the highest to lowest aggregate amount of funding. We created quintiles and checked them to ensure that a roughly equal number of applications was present in each quintile. We used these quintiles in the rocket charts in fig. S2 to compare the highest- and lowest-funded institutions.

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