The aPDL1 antibody used in vivo was purchased from Bio X Cell (clone: 10F.9G2). C57 mice were subcutaneously injected B16F10-Luc (1 × 106). Mice were weighed and randomly divided into different groups (n = 5 to 10). Seven days later, nano-Ag@erythrosomes (10 μg) and aPDL1 (2 mg/kg) were intravenously injected into mice. An IVIS Lumina imaging system (Caliper) was used to monitor the bioluminescence signal generated by cancer cells. The tumors were also measured with a digital caliper. Tumor volume was calculated according to the following formula: width2 × length × 0.5.

In another model, B16F10-Luc cells (1 × 106) were subcutaneously injected on the right flank of C57 mice and grew for 10 days. Then, B16-luc cells (1 × 106) were subcutaneously injected on the left flank 1 day before removing the first tumor by surgery. The cell membrane was extracted according to the method described above, the protein amount of which was determined with a BCA kit. The cell membrane from the tumor and the erythrocyte membrane were fused at a ratio of 1:20. For each mouse, 10-μg proteins from the cell membrane from the tumor were used. Fused membrane vehicle as well as aPDL1 (2 mg/kg) were intravenously injected into these mice at days 1, 3, and 5 after surgery.

To conduct the metastasis model, 4T1-Luc cells (1 × 106) were first injected subcutaneously on Balb/c mice. 4T1-Luc cells (1 × 105) suspended in PBS were intravenously injected into these mice 1 day before removing the first 4T1-Luc tumor by surgery. The treatment at the same dose was repeated as the method described above.

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