For ANR no. and ANR-RE quantification, data are presented as means ± SD when they are from three biological replicates, and data are presented as means ± SEM when they are from one representative experiment. The analyses were conducted using GraphPad Prism 5 and Microsoft Excel 2013. Statistical significance was determined by paired or unpaired two-tailed Student’s t tests when only comparing two groups or by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s posttest where multi groups are need to be compared. Differences between groups were considered significant at P < 0.05.

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