Col-0 was used as wild type, unless otherwise noted. Mutants psy, isph1, lut1, lut2, ccd1, ccd4, ccd7, ccd8, nced2, nced3, nced5, nced6, nced9, aba1, and aba3 were described previously (25). The mutants pin3 to pin4 were acquired from Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center stock center. The arf7arf19 (CS24625) mutants were acquired from the European Arabidopsis Stock Centre and as descripted previously (30). pDR5::nlsYFP (34), pWOX5::GFP (43), pDR5::LUC (24), pDR5rev::GFP (50), pPIN3::PIN3-GFP (51), and pLAX3::LAX3-YFP (45) transgenic marker lines were all as described previously. All mutants and transgenic line information can be found in table S2.

Sterilized Col-0 and mutant seeds were kept at 4°C in darkness for 3 days to stimulate seed germination and then sown on half-strength MS [with 0.5% sucrose + 1% agar and MES (0.5 g/liter) (pH 5.7)] plates supplemented with the indicated compounds. Plates were vertically grown in Percival growth chambers under long day (16-hour light/8-hour dark; 22°C; 60% relative humidity; light density, 4000 lux) light-emitting diode (LED) white light [Hyperikon 16W LED Light Bulb A21, 16 W (100 W equivalent), CRI92, 1620 lumens, and 4000 K (daylight glow)] conditions. Light fluorescence rates were measured using a digital lux meter (PeakTech 5025).

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