Phylogenetic signal was measured for all studied traits using Blomberg’s κ (22) and is summarized in table S5. For all univariate traits, measurements spanned at least two orders of magnitude and were therefore natural log–transformed before analyses except for maximum twisting capability and maximum bending capability. Three multivariate traits were analyzed using Adam’s generalized κ statistic (κmult), which is interpreted in the same way as Blomberg’s κ and is also robust to certain issues in evaluating phylogenetic signal in multidimensional data (23). Two of these traits (extension ROM and wing shape) were analyzed using their respective Procrustes-aligned shape sets. For the third (flight behavior), we computed κmult on the 61 × 12 flight behavior (binary) matrix.

For all measurements of signal, we ran two types of sensitivity analyses. In the first analysis, data were jackknifed: A single species’ trait value was iteratively removed, and signal was recomputed via the influ_physig() function in the R package sensiPhy (65). For ease of understanding, only the maximum clade credibility tree was used. In the second analysis, we varied phylogeny using 1000 trees from the posterior distribution of our BEAST runs to determine the sensitivity of signal to topology. To allow for κmult to be used instead of its univariate counterpart, we wrote customized versions of both the influ_physig() and tree_physig() functions; see influ_physig_kmult() and tree_physig_kmult() functions available in our Figshare repository.

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