Multivariate analyses of shape

We used pPCA (13) to ordinate and facilitate comparison among species’ extension ROMs and wing shapes. Elliptical Fourier coefficients from each dataset were used as the raw data for each pPCA. In each case, we allowed the extent of phylogenetic signal (Pagel’s λ) to, first, be measured directly from the data (using either the maximum clade credibility tree from our BEAST analyses or one of the 1000 posterior distribution trees) and, second, to be used to inform the pPCA (13). For the extension ROM pPCAs, we found the resulting principal components to be invariant to phylogeny (all λ nearly zero; eigenvectors and values all identical); further analyses were carried out using the maximum clade credibility tree only.

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