For 58 of the 61 species examined, frozen cadavers of adult specimens were each acquired from one of five sources: (i) University of British Columbian Beaty Biodiversity Museum (Cowan Tetrapod Collection), Vancouver, BC, Canada; (ii) Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC, Canada; (iii) Wildlife Rescue Association, Burnaby, BC, Canada; (iv) Wild Animal Rehabilitation Centre, Victoria, BC, Canada; or (v) BC Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Nanaimo, BC, Canada.

For the remaining three species, fresh cadavers of adult specimens (Anna’s hummingbird, Calypte anna; pigeon, C. livia; and zebra finch, T. guttata) were sourced from ongoing studies in the Altshuler Laboratory. All procedures with these species were approved by the Animal Care Committee of the University of British Columbia.

Before data collection, each specimen was carefully assessed to determine that its wings were fully intact (including all feathers) and did not exhibit effects of desiccation or decomposition. Adult male specimens were sampled for species in which appreciable sexual dimorphism (by coloration or mass) occurs. Specimens that had been frozen were fully thawed, and all subsequent data collection occurred within 10 min. Masses were measured on intact carcasses before any dissection. Wings were then removed at the shoulder joint, taking special care to ensure that each wing’s skin, propatagial elements, and feathers remained intact. Although in many cases, both wings of a cadaver were removed, data collection occurred only on a single wing per specimen. Details of sample sizes, body masses, and other static morphological measurements (see the “Data collection: Static morphology” section) of specimens are provided in data S1.

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