The perovskite film used in this work was CsFAMA, which can achieve efficiency above 20% in solar cells (1). Perovskite films were prepared inside a glove box filled with nitrogen by solvent engineering method using a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide (1:4 v/v) and chlorobenzene as antisolvent. This method presents the best results to prepare highly efficient PSCs. One sample of CsFAMA was intentionally degraded by heating in a hot plate under air. Details of preparation are available in the Supplementary Materials.

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