A total of 317 R. aegyptiacus bats were included in the study (Table 1). The bats were caught in a roost in central Israel housing thousands of bats and brought to the Zoological Garden in Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Five male bats participated in the bimodal learning and in the cross-modal recognition experiments. Four bats participated in another cross-modal experiment. These bats were identified by bleaching their fur and using radio frequency identification chips. During their stay, they were housed in a large cage (1 m by 2 m by 2.5 m) and kept in reversed light cycle. The bats were trained approximately three to five times a week. On training days, the bats’ diet was restricted to 50% of their daily diet, and they were fed with 70 g of apples per bat. On these days, the rest of the nutrition was provided during training and consisted of bananas and mango juice. On weekends, food was enriched with different fruits available and given ad libitum. Water was always provided ad libitum. During the first few weeks, the bats were weighted on a weekly basis to monitor weight loss. Once it was clear that they are not losing weight, their weight was monitored on a monthly basis, while their physical state was monitored daily during the entire experimental period. The experiment was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) committee number L-12-039.

A total of 308 bats participated in the sensory weighing experiment. They were brought to Tel Aviv University in groups of 16 to 30 (mixed sex), tested the next day, and then released. During their stay, they were kept in natural day-night cycle and provided with water and food ad libitum. Naïve bats were kept separately from bats that already performed the experiment. The experiment was approved by the IACUC committee number L-14-054.

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