For all variables, a preliminary Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was carried out to test normality. Statistical analyses regarding comparisons between experimental groups were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by a two-tailed least significant difference post hoc test with R, and a false discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons (47). Because of the distribution observed in the weight of E15 embryos, we performed a Bartlett test of homogeneity of variances using R as well. Before statistical analyses, we tested for power analysis according to our sample sizes by means of the function pwr.anova.test in R. For those variables that had at least one experimental group that departs from normality, we performed comparisons between means using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and in those cases in which significant difference was detected, we performed pairwise comparisons using Mann-Whitney U analyses. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.

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