Cultured cells were disrupted in lysis buffer from the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), and mRNA was purified following the manufacturer’s instructions. cDNA was synthesized using the Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Roche). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction real-time qRT-PCR was carried out with diluted cDNA, appropriate primers, and LightCycler 480 SYBR Green I Master (Roche) on a Lightcycler 480 instrument (Roche). Relative mRNA levels were calculated using the 2−ΔΔCt method, with L32 serving as the internal control. RNA-seq libraries were prepared using the mRNA isolation protocol and NEBNext Ultra kits from New England BioLabs following the manufacturer’s protocols. Libraries were quantitated by Qubit (Invitrogen) and run on a MiSeq instrument with 75-bp paired-end reads using v3 chemistry (Illumina). Data were analyzed by TopHat2 and Cuffdiff against the human hg19 genome build.

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