The 101-mm bore single-stage light-gas gun was used to conduct the plate impact experiments. The schematic of the experimental configuration is shown in Fig. 1A. The flyer and the front and back targets were disk plates with the thicknesses of 1, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, along the shock direction, and their diameter was all 36 mm. A low-impedance poly(methyl methacrylate) project carrying the flyer was driven by the high-pressure nitrogen to impact the front target. The rear end of the projectile had a sealing O-ring and a Teflon key that slid in a key way inside the gun barrel to prevent any rotation of the projectile. A pair of coaxial electric probes was embedded in the epoxy holder of targets to record the initial velocity of impact. Both the flyer and the targets were carefully finished in parallel to ensure the generation of plane waves after normal impact. The stress amplitude of a shock wave can be calculated through the relation σp = ρcLVp, where Vp is the material PV. A photonic Doppler velocimetry system was adopted to measure the FSV (≈2Vp) of the back target. All targets were soft-recovered by decelerating into several stages of cotton drags. Shear bands or cracks were not observed in the recovered front targets.

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