Osmotic pressure was modulated by adding 400-Da polyethylene glycol (PEG 400, TCI America) in the culture medium (29). Briefly, cells were encapsulated in soft (3 kPa) and fast-relaxing hydrogels, and sterilized PEG 400 was added to the medium at the concentration of 0% (wt/vol; control), 3%, and 6%, respectively. Osmotic pressure was reported as osmolarity.

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