The SEM images were implemented by SEM (S5500, Hitachi) to observe the morphology and microstructure of the samples. The h-LAHs were freeze-dried for 24 hours before observation. The FTIR spectra were conducted by the FTIR spectrometer (Infinity Gold FTIR, Thermo Mattson) equipped with a liquid nitrogen cooled narrow-band mercury cadmium telluride detector using an attenuated total reflection cell equipped with a Ge crystal. The mechanical properties of h-LAHs were performed by rheological experiments (AR2000EX, TA Instruments) using a parallel plate on a Peltier plate in the frequency sweep mode. Absorption spectra and reflectance were conducted using a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer (Cary 5000) with an integrating sphere unit and automation of reflectance measurement unit, and the measurements were corrected by baseline/blank correction with dark correction. The Raman spectra were measured via spectrometer (WITec alpha300). The excitation radiation for the Raman emission was produced using a Yttrium aluminium garnet laser that had a single-mode operation at 532 nm. The evaporation and melting behavior of h-LAHs were observed by a differential scanning calorimeter (METTLER TOLEDO DSC 3). The temperature and melting enthalpy were calibrated by indium. The concentration of ions was tracked by ICP-MS (Agilent 7500ce) with dilutions in 2% HNO3 to make the loaded ion concentration lower than 10 parts per million.

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