The data were first analyzed for normal distribution. The density of LVs and inflammatory cells in human samples showed positively skewed distribution. CKD patients were divided into LVslow and LVshigh groups by intrarenal LV numbers graded from the second lowest tercile versus the highest tercile. Box plots were created using SigmaPlot 10.0. Values greater than 95% or less than 5% were shown as a dot, while values less than 95% or greater than 5% were hidden in positive and negative error line. Values less than 75% or greater than 25% were hidden in bars. Data conforming to normal distribution were presented as mean ± SEM and were prepared using GraphPad Prism software version 5.0. We used the nonparametric two-tailed unpaired or paired Mann-Whitney U test to evaluate P values. n.s. > 0.05, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.

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