Field-emission SEM (FEI Nova NanoSEM 630) was used to investigate the surface topography of fabricated spheroids and dissociated electrocytes (see the Supplementary Materials for dissociation of electrocytes). Spheroids were harvested after 2 days of culture. Spheroids and electrocytes were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (Sigma-Aldrich) overnight; samples were then carefully washed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and dehydrated using graded ethanol solutions (25 to 100%). To ensure complete removal of water, samples were further dried in a critical point dryer (CPD300, Leica EM, Wetzlar, Germany). On complete dehydration, they were sputter-coated with iridium (Leica) and imaged at an accelerating voltage of 3 to 5 keV.

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