Quantitative tests of evolutionary convergence were applied using an operational definition of convergence essentially the same as that for discrete traits (independent derivation of the same morphological state, e.g., within two species), with quantitative analysis used to test relative phenotypic similarity across the complete dataset (24, 25) and the number of quantitatively distinct phenotypic states, e.g., clusters (for further details, see Supplementary Methods).

To further explore the extent of reciprocal convergence in mimicry between H. erato and H. melpomene, detailed comparative analyses (40) were then conducted using 12 selected subspecies (fig. S7). First, sets of four subspecies were identified, with each set consisting of two pairs of interspecies co-mimics in which conspecifics were nearest neighbors in the phenotypic spatial embedding, permitting phenotypic sister-group comparisons (fig. S7, A and B). Focal co-mimics, with pattern features that are potentially derived, rather than ancestral, were identified for each comparative analysis based on all available independent information from gene phylogenies, biogeographic distribution (fig. S2), and phylogeographic reconstruction (12, 16, 26, 33). For comparison, the analyses were then repeated with reversed polarity. In each comparative analysis, the position in phenotypic space of each of the focal subspecies was compared to that of their nearest conspecific [a type of sister-group comparison (25)]. Mann-Whitney tests for equal medians tested whether conspecifics differed significantly in their distance from the focal co-mimic of the other species (after Shapiro-Wilk’s tests indicated that some subspecies values were non-normally distributed).

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