Roughness measurements were done using a 3D laser scanning microscope (KEYENCE VK-X-1000). Surface roughness Sq was measured after the sliding experiments and calculated as the root-mean-square height variation over an area of 150 μm by 100 μm measured at a resolution of 108 nm per pixel. Because Sq can depend sensitively on the cutoff length and sampling rate, we vary the resolution and size of the measurement area (fig. S10).

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