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Paleointensity measurements were made at Kumamoto University on the samples collected from the lava sequence of Haleakala caldera. One-inch-diameter cores were drilled from the block samples, and the cores were cut into samples of ~22 mm in length. Thirty-nine samples were measured using the Tsunakawa-Shaw paleointensity method (previously called the LTD-DHT Shaw method) using the methods in (58).

The experimental conditions are as follows: Alternating field (AF) demagnetization and remanence measurement were made by an automated fluxgate-sensor spinner magnetometer with AF demagnetizer (Dspin-2, Natsuhara Giken). Progressive AF demagnetization up to 180 mT was applied to the samples. Acquired remanent magnetization (ARM) was given in 50- or 107-μT direct current field with the maximum AF (180 mT) of the AF demagnetizer (see the Supplementary Materials). The ARM was approximately parallel to the natural remanent magmetization or thermal remanent magnetization (TRM). TRMs were imparted to the samples in a vacuum of 10 to 102 Pa in a thermal demagnetizing oven (Natsuhara Giken). The hold time at a peak temperature of 610°C in the first heating was 30 min, and in the second heating, it was 40 min. Representative experimental details (figs. S9 to 12) and results (tables S2 to S4) are in the Supplementary Materials.

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