A video image–shearing method was used to measure vessel diameter (D). Changes in arteriolar and venular diameter from baseline were used as indicators of a change in vascular tone. Arteriolar and venular centerline velocities were measured on-line using the photodiode cross-correlation method (Photo Diode/Velocity Tracker Model 102B, Vista Electronics, San Diego, CA). The measured centerline velocity (V) was corrected according to vessel size to obtain the mean red blood cell velocity. Blood flow (Q) was calculated from the measured values as Q = π × V (D/2)2.

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