All samples were taken by Cruise KN223 of the R/V Knorr, in the North Atlantic, from 26 October 2014 to 3 December 2014 (Woods Hole, MA to Woods Hole, MA). At both site 11 (22°47.0′ N, 56°31.0′ W, water depth ~5600 m) and site 12 (29°40.6′ N, 58°19.7′ W, water depth ~5400 m), successively deeper subseafloor cores were taken with a multicorer (to ~0.4 mbsf), a gravity corer (to ~3 mbsf), and the 45-m Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) “long corer” piston-coring device ( (to ~28 mbsf) (table S1). Additional details of sampling at sites 11 and 12 are described by D’Hondt et al. (4). Subsamples from the core sections for DNA extraction were sampled on board the ship immediately after retrieval with sterile 60-ml syringes with the Luer taper end cut off and frozen immediately at −80°C before DNA extraction. Subsamples for the 18O-labeling experiment were sampled from the core sections in the same manner but were stored at +4°C before incubation setup.

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