Pure-shear tests were performed following protocols reported previously (17, 24). An Instron machine (model 3342 with a load cell maximum of 50 N) was used to apply unidirectional tension on specimens (80 mm by 5 mm by 1.5 mm). The strain limit was defined as the ratio of the extension of the specimen upon rupture to that of the undeformed specimen. The elastic modulus was defined as the tangent of the stress-stretch curve at small strains (<10%). The fracture energy was determined by the stress-stretch curves of unnotched and notched specimens following a previously reported protocol (17, 24).

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