SEM (Hitachi S-4800) was used to characterize the morphologies of BCP thin films. The operation energy was 5 keV, and the working distance was 3 mm. Before imaging by SEM, gold loading on P2VP domain (45) was carried out for enhancing contrast by soaking the samples in a 5 mM HAuCl4/3% HCl solution for 30 min. Subsequent rinsing with deionized water and blown with N2 gas was conducted.

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