In brief, human and rodent tissues were inflation-fixed with 10% formalin for 3 hours, transferred in 70% ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Deparaffinized tissue sections were soaked in antigen retrieval solution [0.05% Tween 20, 1 mM EDTA, and 10 mM tris (pH 9)] at 75°C for 20 min, followed by blocking (10% FBS and 0.2% Triton X-100) at room temperature for 20 min. Lung sections were then stained with primary antibodies (concentrations are listed in data file S2) overnight at 4°C, followed by incubation with secondary antibodies (concentrations are listed in data file S2) at room temperature for 1 hour and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear stain (1 min). Samples were imaged with confocal microscopy (Leica SP5). Detailed staining protocol can be found in the study of Yuan et al. (47).

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