Stage 2 follow-up of lead SNPs
AA Alexessander Couto Alves NS N. Maneka G. De Silva VK Ville Karhunen US Ulla Sovio SD Shikta Das HT H. Rob Taal NW Nicole M. Warrington AL Alexandra M. Lewin MK Marika Kaakinen DC Diana L. Cousminer ET Elisabeth Thiering NT Nicholas J. Timpson TB Tom A. Bond EL Estelle Lowry CB Christopher D. Brown XE Xavier Estivill VL Virpi Lindi JB Jonathan P. Bradfield FG Frank Geller DS Doug Speed LC Lachlan J. M. Coin ML Marie Loh SB Sheila J. Barton LB Lawrence J. Beilin HB Hans Bisgaard KB Klaus Bønnelykke RA Rohia Alili IH Ida J. Hatoum KS Katharina Schramm RC Rufus Cartwright MC Marie-Aline Charles VS Vincenzo Salerno KC Karine Clément AC Annique A. J. Claringbould CD Cornelia M. van Duijn EM Elena Moltchanova JE Johan G. Eriksson CE Cathy Elks BF Bjarke Feenstra CF Claudia Flexeder SF Stephen Franks TF Timothy M. Frayling RF Rachel M. Freathy PE Paul Elliott EW Elisabeth Widén HH Hakon Hakonarson AH Andrew T. Hattersley AR Alina Rodriguez MB Marco Banterle JH Joachim Heinrich BH Barbara Heude JH John W. Holloway AH Albert Hofman EH Elina Hyppönen HI Hazel Inskip LK Lee M. Kaplan AH Asa K. Hedman EL Esa Läärä HP Holger Prokisch HG Harald Grallert TL Timo A. Lakka DL Debbie A. Lawlor MM Mads Melbye TA Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia MM Marcella Marinelli IM Iona Y. Millwood LP Lyle J. Palmer CP Craig E. Pennell JP John R. Perry SR Susan M. Ring MS Markku J. Savolainen FR Fernando Rivadeneira MS Marie Standl JS Jordi Sunyer CT Carla M. T. Tiesler AU Andre G. Uitterlinden WS William Schierding JO Justin M. O’Sullivan IP Inga Prokopenko KH Karl-Heinz Herzig GS George Davey Smith PO Paul O'Reilly JF Janine F. Felix JB Jessica L. Buxton AB Alexandra I. F. Blakemore KO Ken K. Ong VJ Vincent W. V. Jaddoe SG Struan F. A. Grant  SS Sylvain Sebert  MM Mark I. McCarthy  MJ Marjo-Riitta Järvelin

For follow-up of lead signals selected from stage 1, we used data from up to 16,550 children of European descent from 12 additional population-based studies (up to 11 studies for each early growth trait), namely, the ALSPAC (United Kingdom), Cambridge Baby Growth Study (United Kingdom), Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (United States), Copenhagen Prospective Study on Children (Denmark), Danish National Birth Cohort (Denmark), Étude des Déterminants pré- et postnatals du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN; France), The Exeter Family Study of Childhood Health (United Kingdom), INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (Spain), Lifestyle-Immune System–Allergy Study [LISA (R), Germany], Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986 (Finland), The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (Finland), and Southampton Women’s Survey (United Kingdom). We used de novo SNP genotyped or imputed data for the eight SNPs (or proxies of r2 > 0.8) selected from stage 1 and tested their association in a total of 5367, 16,550, 12,256, and 12,192 children of European ancestry with PWV, BMI-AP, Age-AR, and BMI-AR, respectively (Fig. 2). Direct genotyping was performed in some follow-up studies by KBiosciences Ltd. (Hoddesdon, United Kingdom) using their own novel system of fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar). The call rates for all genotyped SNPs were >95%. Study characteristics, genotyping platform, imputation and association test software used, as well as sample and genotyping and imputation quality control steps in each stage 1 study are given in table S2. We used the same methods as in stage 1 for sample selection, genotyping quality control, association testing, and meta-analysis.

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